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Grafting to plants: indication of what is needed, right period, conservation and removal of the scions, cutting and the best technique.
Among the techniques of plant reproduction, in addition to cutting, multiplication by offshoot, layering and sowing, there is also thegrafting.
The best time to practicegrafting to plants generally falls in spring or autumn and must be performed using still dormant buds, the slips, which are generally taken with winter pruning. The classic example of grafting plants it is given by a citrus plant that produces half an orange and the other half lemons.
Grafting plants, general indications
If you want to practice a grafting in spring, you must first collect the slips (a portion of a branch with one or more buds). The collection of the slips takes place at the end of winter, before the vegetative restart of the plants: it will be sufficient to store them in the refrigerator wrapped in simple sheets of newspapers and then closed in garbage bags.
During the autumn period the grafts they will go through a period of rest, in which they will have to be sheltered from the cold and frost.
Therescionit must be a branch of 15 cm. For the selection criteria and details on its conservation, we refer you to the dedicated pagegraft graft. Theslips they must be taken from young branches with still tender and shiny bark. The branches, in fact, must not be older than one year.
The best period to carry out these operations corresponds to that of full activity of the plants as the sap circulates abundantly and makes it very easy to detach the bark.
When to graft a plant? In reality, the graft can be divided into two phases, in the first one thescionand in the second the scion is planted in the rootstock.
The scion is collected between the months of January and February.
The scion is grafted onto the rootstock from March, with the vegetative restart of the plants. For all the specifications, plant by plant, we refer you to the page:when making the graft.
Types of grafting
There are many types of graftingand differ in the shape of the cut. To name just a fewtypes of graftingwe report:
- Cell coupling
It consists in placing the scions in a cell in the trunk of the plant.
- Split graft
It consists in making the splitting with appropriate tools and then inserting two scions at the ends of the split.
- Tab coupling
It consists of wedging the slips together.
- Bridge coupling
It is not a propagative graft but a "reparative" one, in fact, it is used to restore trunks or branches.
To ensure the engraftment of thegrafting, regardless of the type of cut adopted, these three basic rules must be respected:
- Secure the two ends with the special mastic for grafting.
- Match the two edges, stopping them with the appropriate raffia (in the absence of raffia, use simple insulating tape).
- While waiting for engraftment, protect the graft from the cold. The most striking sign will be the appearance of new shoots
We have devoted a great deal of pages toGrafting of fruit trees, this is because the techniques are different and nothing must be left to chance, starting with the cut.
To increase the chances of taking root, in addition to the use of a stimulating and protective mastic, it is necessary to make a clean, clean cut without burrs. An unclear cut could cause suffering to the plant and compromise the success of the entire operation.
This is why it is recommended to use well-sharpened knives or scissors designed for omega, gem cutting, etc ... The use of the grafting knife is sufficient but is only recommended for those with great practicality and experience.
To facilitate the entire operation, even professionals in the sector now employ special ones grafting scissors. Grafting scissors are not expensive and on the market there are exclusive ones for a type of cut or more versatile and therefore adaptable to make different types of grafting. Among the various purchase proposals we point out what appear to be the best value for money grafting scissors:
- Professional grafting scissors - “Tink-sky Professional” - Price 29.99 euros. Personally tested on a plum tree ... the plastics are a bit poor but the grafter does his duty and leaves no smudges.
- Grafting machine 4 types of grafting – Proposed at the price of 49.80 euros. I have not tried it personally but from what I read from the opinions of those who have used it, it is more robust and the blades should ensure a longer life than the previous model.
These grafting scissors allow you to easily obtain cuts aomega, split and interlocking (U, V and omega cuts).
The first model reported is equipped with two additional blades and the classic blades for pruning the plant.
Made of steel and durable plastic. The cutting system for grafting is particularly suitable for grafting fruit plants even if it fits well on woody branches (roses, vines and other ornamental plants). Both prices indicated include free shipping costs.
How to graft a fruit tree?
- Choose rootstock and scion
- Adjust the scissors to the type of cut (and graft) desired
- Cut the scion and the branch of the rootstock where you want to plant the scion
- Join the scion to the rootstock by adding mastic
- Seal with raffia or grafting tape.
Grafting to plants, what is needed
L'graftingit is a delicate operation that ... is not always successful! Always take a good number of scions and try different grafts in order to guarantee at least a good result!
Important is the scion, the right period, the cut, the mastic, the treatments ... but the choice of therootstock.
Therootstockit can be a plant you have at home or specially purchased from a nursery. Therootstockit must be a plant of the same kind as the one you want. For example: sweet orange on bitter orange, plum tree on wild prunus ... although for stone fruit such as peach, apricot and plum, Myrabolan (Prunus cerasifera) is mainly used.
Forgraft the plants, therefore, you will need:
- Cloths or newspapers for storing the scions
- Copper oxychloride to treat slips
- Raffia or electrical tape
- Mastic with stimulating action
- Knife or grafting machine
- Paper bags and twine